Laysan Crake
Image credit: Laysan Crake (Zapornia palmeri), by Afred M. Bailey (1913). Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Version 2016.3) shows that at least 1460 of the 11121 living bird species on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction (IUCN 2016). According to the IUCN at least 156 bird species have become extinct since the year 1500 (IUCN 2016). It doesn’t list any bird subspecies. However, the real situation could be much worse, as 66 bird species are listed as Data Deficient and many as critically endangered (possibly extinct) (IUCN 2010; IUCN 2011; IUCN 2016).

Do you know any species or subspecies that should be added to this list or has been rediscovered? If so, please contact this website.

Species

The subjoined table shows the bird species that recently became globally extinct.

Species (163)
Scientific Name Common Name Last sighting / EED 1 TSEW status IUCN status
Acrocephalus astrolabii Mangareva Reed Warbler 1826-1829 EX EX
Acrocephalus luscinius Nightingale Reed Warbler 1969 EX EX
Acrocephalus musae Garrett’s Reed Warbler 1870-1887 EX EX
Acrocephalus nijoi Aguiguan Reed Warbler 1995 EX EX
Acrocephalus yamashinae Pagan Reed Warbler 1970s EX EX
Aegolius gradyi Bermuda Saw-whet Owl 1600s EX EX
Akialoa ellisiana Oahu Akialoa 1837 (1940?) EX EX
Akialoa lanaiensis Lanai Akialoa  1892 EX EX
Akialoa obscura Lesser Akialoa 1903 (1940?) EX EX
Akialoa stejnegeri Kauai Akialoa 1969 EX EX
Alectroenas nitidissimus Mauritius Blue Pigeon 1826 EX EX
Alectroenas payandeei Rodrigues Blue Pigeon 1601-1691? EX EX
Alopecoenas ferrugineus Tanna Ground-dove  1774 EX EX
Alopecoenas norfolkensis Norfolk Island Ground-dove 1790 EX NE
Alopecoenas salamonis Thick-billed Ground Dove  1927 EX EX
Alopochen kervazoi Réunion Shelduck  1672 EX EX
Alopochen mauritiana Mauritian Shelduck 1693 EX EX
Amazona martinicana Matinique Amazon 1742 EX EX
Amazona violacea Guadeloupe Amazon 1742 EX EX
Anas fuscescens Newfoundland Duck 1824 EX NE
Anas marecula Amsterdam Island Duck  1793 EX EX
Anas theodori Mauritian Duck  1696 (1710?) EX EX
Anthornis melanocephala Chatham Island Bellbird  1906 EX EX
Aphanapteryx bonasia Red Rail  1693 EX EX
Aplonis corvina Kusaie Island Starling 1828 EX EX
Aplonis fusca Norfolk Starling  1923 EX EX
Aplonis mavornata Mysterious Starling  1825 EX EX
Aplonis ulietensis Bay Thrush 1774 EX EX
Ara tricolor Cuban Red Macaw  1864 (1876?) EX EX
Atlantisia podarces St. Helena Crake  After 1502 EX EX
Bermuteo avivorus Bermuda Hawk 1603? EX EX
Bullweria bifax St. Helena Bulwer’s Petrel  After 1502 EX EX
Cabalus modestus Chatham Island Rail  1895-1900 EX EX
Caloenas maculata Liverpool Pigeon  1820s EX EX
Camptorhynchus labradorius Labrador Duck 1875 (1878?) EX EX
Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Caracara 1900 EX EX
Carpodacus ferreorostris Bonin Grosbeak  1828 (1890?) EX EX
Chaetoptila angustipluma Kioea  1859 EX EX
Chenonetta finschi Finsch’s Duck 1442-1953 EX EX
Chloridops kona Kona Grosbeak 1892 EX EX
Chlorostilbon bracei Brace’s Emerald  1877 EX EX
Chlorostilbon elegans Gould’s Emerald  1860 EX EX
Ciridops anna Ula-‘Ai-Hawane  1892 EX EX
Coenocorypha barrierensis North Island Snipe 1870 EX NE
Coenocorypha iredalei South Island Snipe 1964 EX NE
Colaptes oceanicus Bermuda Flicker 1600s EX EX
Columba jouyi Ryukyu Wood Pigeon 1936 EX EX
Columba thiriouxi Mauritius Wood Pigeon 1730 EX NE
Columba versicolor Bonin Wood Pigeon 1889 EX EX
Conuropsis carolinensis Carolina Parakeet  1918 EX EX
Coturnix novaezelandidae New Zealand Quail  1875 EX EX
Coua delalandei Delalande’s Coua  1834 EX EX
Cyanoramphus ulietanus Raiatea Parakeet 1773-1774 EX EX
Cyanoramphus zealandicus Black-fronted Parakeet  1844 EX EX
Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Hawkin’s Rail After 1350 (1800s?) EX EX
Drepanis funerea Black Mamo  1907 EX EX
Drepanis pacifica Hawaii Mamo  1898 EX EX
Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island Emu  1819 (1827?) EX EX
Dromaius minor King Island Emu  1803-1836 EX EX
Dryolimnas augusti Réunion Rail 1671-1672 EX NE
Dysmorodrepanis munroi Lanai Hookbill 1913 (1918?) EX EX
Ectopistes migratorius Passenger Pigeon 1914 EX EX
Erythromachus leguati Rodrigues Rail  1726 EX EX
Falco duboisi Réunion Kestrel 1671-1672 EX EX
Foudia delloni Réunion Fody 1672 EX EX
Fregilupus varius Réunion Starling  1838 EX EX
Fulica newtoni Mascarene Coot  1693 EX EX
Gallinula nesiotis Tristan Moorhen  1873 EX EX
Gerygone insularis Lord Howe Gerygone  1918 EX EX
Haematopus meadewaldoi Canarian Black Oystercatcher 1913 (1940?) EX EX
Hemignathus lucidus Oahu Nukupuu 1893 EX EX
Heteralocha acutirostris Huia 1907 EX EX
Himatione fraithii Laysan Honeycreeper 1923 EX EX
Hypotaenidia dieffenbachii Dieffenbach’s Rail 1840 EX EX
Hypotaenidia pacifica Tahiti Rail  1777 (1844?) EX EX
Hypotaenidia poeciloptera Fiji Bar-winged Rail 1890 (1973?) EX EX
Hypotaenidia wakensis Wake Island Rail  1945 EX EX
Hypsipetes cowlesi Rodrigues Bulbul Before 1691? EX NE
Ixobrychus novaezelandiae New Zealand Little Bittern  1870 EX EX
Lophopsittacus bensoni Mauritius Grey Parrot 1759 EX EX
Lophopsittacus mauritianus Broad-billed Parrot  1673-1675 EX EX
Loxops wolstenholmei Oahu Akepa 1893 EX EX
Mascarenotus grucheti Réunion Owl 1700s EX EX
Mascarenotus murivorus Rodrigues Owl 1726 EX EX
Mascarenotus sauzieri Mauritius Owl 1800-1850 EX EX
Mascarinus mascarin Mascarene Parrot 1784 EX EX
Mergus australis Auckland Island Merganser 1902 EX EX
Microgoura meeki Solomon Island Crowned Pigeon 1904 EX EX
Moho apicalis O’ahu ‘O’o 1837 EX EX
Moho bishopi Molokai ‘O’o 1904 EX EX
Moho braccatus Kaua’i ‘O’o 1985 (1987?) EX EX
Moho nobilis Hawai’i ‘O’o 1902 (1934?) EX EX
Mundia elpenor Ascension Flightless Crake 1656 EX EX
Myadestes myadestinus Kamao 1989 EX EX
Myadestes woahensis Amaui 1825 EX EX
Myiagra freycineti Guam Flycatcher 1984 EX EX
Nannococcyx psix St. Helena Cuckoo 1500-1800 EX EX
Necropsar rodericanus Rodrigues Starling 1726 EX EX
Necropsittacus borbonicus Réunion Parrot 1671-1672 EX NE
Necropsittacus rodericanus Rodrigues Parrot 1761 EX EX
Nesillas aldabrana Aldabra Brush-warbler 1983 EX EX
Nesoenas cicur Mauritius Turtle Dove 1730 EX NE
Nesoenas duboisi Réunion Pink Pigeon 1705 EX EX
Nesoenas rodericanus Rodrigues Turtle Dove 1726 EX EX
Nestor productus Norfolk Island Kaka 1851 EX EX
Nyctanassa carcinocatactes Bermuda Night-Heron 1623 EX NE
Nycticorax duboisi Réunion Night-heron 1671-1672 EX EX
Nycticorax mauritianus Mauritius Night-heron 1693 EX EX
Nycticorax megacephalus Rodrigues Night-heron 1726 EX EX
Nycticorax olsoni Ascension Night-Heron 1555 EX NE
Paroreomyza flammea Kakawahie 1963 EX EX
Pezophaps solitaria Rodrigues Solitaire 1754 EX EX
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Spectacled Cormorant 1852 EX EX
Pinguinus impennis Great Auk 1852 EX EX
Pipilo naufragus Bermuda Towhee 1610 EX EX
Podiceps andinus Colombian Grebe 1977 EX EX
Podilymbus gigas Atitlan Grebe 1986 EX EX
Pomarea fluxa Eiao Monarch 1977 EX EX
Pomarea nukuhivae Nuku Hiva Monarch 1930s EX EX
Pomarea pomarea Maupiti Monarch 1823 EX EX
Poodytes rufescens Chatham Islands Fernbird 1892 EX EX
Porphyrio albus Lord Howe Swamphen 1790 EX EX
Porphyrio caerulescens Réunion Gallinule 1734 EX EX
Porphyrio kukwiedei New Caledonia Gallinule 86-428 (1890?) EX EX
Porphyrio mantelli North Island Takahe 1894 EX EX
Porphyrio paepae Marquesas Island Gallinule 1902 (1937?) EX EX
Prosobonia cancellata Kiritimati Sandpiper 1850 EX EX
Prosobonia ellisi White-winged Sandpiper 1777 EX EX
Prosobonia leucoptera Tahitian Sandpiper 1773 EX EX
Psephotus pulcherrimus Paradise Parrot 1927 EX EX
Psittacara labati Guadeloupe Parakeet 1750 EX EX
Psittacula exsul Newton’s Parakeet 1875 EX EX
Psittacula wardi Seychelles Parakeet 1881-1906 EX EX
Pterodroma rupinarum Large St. helena Petrel After 1502 EX EX
Ptilinopus mercierii Red-moustached Fruit-dove 1922 EX EX
Puffinus spelaeus Scarlett’s Shearwater 1556–1858 EX NE
Pyrocephalus dubius Least Vermilion Flycatcher 1980s EX EX
Quiscalus palustris Slender-billed Grackle 1910 EX EX
Raphus cucullatus Dodo 1662-1693 EX EX
Rhodacanthis flaviceps Lesser Koa-finch 1891 EX EX
Rhodacanthis palmeri Greater Koa-finch 1896 EX EX
Sceloglaux albifacies Laughing Owl 1914 (1930?) EX EX
Tachybaptus rufolavatus Alaotra Grebe 1985 EX EX
Threskiornis solitarius Réunion Flightless Ibi 1708 EX EX
Traversia lyalii Stephens Island Wren 1894 EX EX
Tribonyx hodgenorum Hodgens’ Waterhen 1769 EX EX
Turdus ravidus Grand Cayman Thrush 1938 EX EX
Turnagra capensis South Island Piopio 1963 EX EX
Turnagra tanagra North Island Piopio 1955 EX EX
Tyto cavatica Puerto Rican Barn Owl 1912? EX NE
Tyto pollens Bahaman Barn Owl 1500s? EX NE
Upupa antaois St. Helena Hoopoe After 1502? EX EX
Viridonia sagittirostris Greater ‘Amakihi  1901 EX EX
Xenicus longipes New Zealand Bush Wren 1972 EX EX
Zapornia astrictocarpus St Helena Crake After 1502 EX EX
Zapornia monasa Kosrae Crake 1827-1828 EX EX
Zapornia nigra Miller’s Rail 1784 EX EX
Zapornia palmeri Laysan Crake 1944 (1945?) EX EX
Zapornia sandwichensis Hawaiian Crake 1884 (1893?) EX EX
Zoothera terrestris Bonin Thrush 1828 EX EX
Zosterops conspicillatus Guam Bridled White-eye 1983 EX EX
Zosterops semiflavus Marianne White-eye 1870-1900 EX EX
Zosterops strenuus Lord Howe White-eye 1918 EX EX

Subspecies

The subjoined table shows the bird subspecies that recently became globally extinct.

Subspecies (63)
Scientific Name Common Name Last sighting / EED 1 TSEW status IUCN status
Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris Laysan Millerbird 1913-1923 EX NE
Aimophila ruficeps sanctorum Todos Santos Rufous-sided Sparrow 1970s EX NE
Amaurolimnas concolor concolor Jamaican Wood Rail 1881 EX NE
Amaurornis cinerea brevipes Iwo Jima Crake 1911 (1925?) EX NE
Amazona vittata gracilipes Culebra Island Amazon 1899 EX NE
Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens Dusky Seaside Sparrow 1987 EX NE
Amytornis modestus inexpectatus Namoi Grasswren 1886 EX NE
Amytornis modestus modestus Macdonnell Ranges Grasswren 1936 EX NE
Amytornis textilis carteri Dirk Hartog Island Grasswren 1916 EX NE
Amytornis textilis giganturus Northern Inland Grasswren 1909 EX NE
Amytornis textilis macrourus Large-tailed Grasswren 1910 EX NE
Anas georgica niceforoi Niceforo Brown Pintail 1952 EX NE
Anas gracilis remissa Rennel Island Grey Teal 1959 EX NE
Anhinga rufa chantrei Levant Darter 1991 EX NE
Apalopteron familiare familiare Mukojima White-eye 1941 EX NE
Apteryx owenii iredalei North Island Little Spotted Kiwi 1875 EX NE
Athene cunicularia amaura Antigua Burrowing Owl 1900 EX NE
Athene cunicularia guadeloupensis Marie-Galante Burrowing Owl 1900 EX NE
Buteo japonicus oshiroi Daito Islands Buzzard 1973 EX NE
Centropus toulou assumptionis Assumption Island Coucal 1906 (1920s?) EX NE
Colaptes auratus rufipileus Guadalupe Flicker 1906 EX NE
Columba palumbus maderensis Madeiran Wood Pigeon 1904 EX NE
Columba vitiensis godmanae Lord Howe White-throated Pigeon 1853 EX NE
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae erythrotis Macquarie Red-fronted Parakeet 1890 EX NE
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens Lord Howe Red-fronted Parakeet 1889 EX NE
Dasyornis broadbenti litoralis Western Rufous Bristlebird 1908 EX NE
Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Tasmanian Emu 1852 (1873?) EX NE
Dryocopus javensis cebuensis Cebu White-bellied Woodpecker 2001 EX NE
Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti Assumption White-throated Rail 1908-1937 EX NE
Eclectus roratus westermani Westerman’s Eclectus Parrot 1899 EX NE
Gymnocrex plumbeiventris intactus Solomon Islands Bare-eyed Rail 1872 EX NE
Haemorhous mexicanus mcgregori McGregor’s House Finch 1938 EX NE
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea Norfolk Island Pigeon 1850s EX NE
Hypotaenidia philippensis macquariensis Macquarie Island Banded Rail 1879 EX NE
Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Grand Cayman Oroile 1938 (1967?) EX NE
Lalage leucopyga leucopyga Norfolk Island Long-tailed Triller 1942 EX NE
Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis Jamaican Black Rail 1870s EX NE
Lewinia pectoralis clelandii Cleland’s Rail 1932 EX NE
Loxigilla portoricensis grandis St. Kitts Puerto Rican Bullfinch 1929 EX NE
Mareca strepera couesi Coues’s Gadwall 1874 EX NE
Myadestes lanaiensis lanaiensis Lanai Thrush 1931 EX NE
Nesoenas picturatus aldabranus Amirante Turtle Dove 1974 EX NE
Nesoenas picturatus rostratus Seychelles Turtle Dove Before 2012 EX NE
Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria Lord Howe Island Boobook Owl 1940 EX NE
Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata Norfolk Island Boobook Owl 1996 EX NE
Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris Bonin Night-Heron 1889 EX NE
Paroreomyza montana montana Lanai Creeper 1937 EX NE
Pipilo maculatus consobrinus Guadalupe Rufous-sided Towhee 1897 EX NE
Poecile varius orii Daito Varied Tit 1938 EX NE
Psittacara chloropterus maugei Mona Island Conure 1892 EX NE
Rhipidura fulignosa cervina Lord Howe Island Fantail 1924-1928 EX NE
Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae Guam Rufous Fantail 1984 EX NE
Salpinctes obsoletus exsul San Benedicto Rock Wren 1952 EX NE
Sylvia melanocephala norrisae Fayyum Warbler 1939 EX NE
Struthio camelus syriacus Arabian Ostrich 1940-1945 (1966?) EX NE
Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda Guadelupe Bewick’s Wren 1897 EX NE
Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys San Clemente Bewick’s Wren 1968 EX NE
Todiramphus gambieri gambieri Mangareva Kingfisher 1841 EX NE
Troglodytes aedon martinicensis Martinique House Wren 1886 EX NE
Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus Norfolk Island Thrush 1975 EX NE
Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus Lord Howe Island Thrush 1918 EX NE
Tympanuchus cupido cupido Heath Hen 1932 EX NE
Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi New Mexico Sharp-tailed Grouse 1952 EX NE

Notes

  1. The Effective Extinction Date (EED) is the last reliable record of collection or observation.

The Sixth Extinction Database (TSED)

The Sixth Extinction has created a database (TSED 2.0) with currently all known recent mammal and bird extinctions, possible extinctions, extinctions in the wild, rediscoveries, and more. Later versions of this database will include extinctions from all animal and plant groups. The database is free to download in Excel and OpenDocument formats.

Excel XLSXExcel XLSOpen Document ODS

References

BirdLife International (2008). State of the world’s birds: indicators for our changing world. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

BirdLife International (2016). Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 9.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. (2016). HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Fuller, E. (2000). Extinct birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

IUCN (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 12 November 2010.

IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 25 June 2011.

IUCN (2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Hume J.P. & Walters M. (2012). Extinct birds. London: T & AD Poyser, 544 pp. ISBN 978-1-4081-5725-1.

Tyrberg, T. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions. In: Turvey, S.T. (editor) (2009). Holocene extinctions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Citation: Maas, P.H.J. (2017). Globally Extinct Birds. In: TSEW (2017). The Sixth Extinction. http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct. Downloaded on .
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Updated: 26 May 2017